Genetics deals with the molecular structure and function of genes, gene behavior in context of a cell or organism (e.g. dominance and epigenetics), patterns of inheritance from parent to offspring, and gene distribution, variation and change in populations,such as through Genome-Wide Association Studies. Given that genes are universal to living organisms, genetics can be applied to the study of all living systems, from viruses and bacteria, through plants and domestic animals, to humans (as in medical genetics). (

The presence of the Y chromosome triggers a human embryo to become male. Dr. David Page describes how the Y chromosome was once very much like every other gene-filled chromosome, but in the course of vertebrate evolution has lost almost every function except making males.

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